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Title:[转] Mandarin Phonetics 全英版汉语拼音知识讲解

Gina
Topic Poster
Gina 11-05-12 15:38
The Chinese Phonetic Alphabet
There have been many different systems of transcription used for learning to pronounce Chinese. Today the official transcription accepted on an international basis is the Pinyin alphabet, developed in China at the end of the 1950\'s.

Initials

A syllable in Chinese is composed of an initial, which is a consonant that begins the syllable, and a final, wich covers the rest of the syllable.

b p m f
d t n l
g k h
j q x
z c s
zh ch sh r

  • m, f, n, l, h and sh are pronounced as in English.
  • d like 'd' in 'bed' (unaspirated)
    j like 'g' in 'genius' (unaspirated)
    z like 'ds' in 'beds'
    zh like 'j' in 'job'
    b like 'p' in 'spin' (unaspirated)
    g a soft unaspirated 'k' sound
    x like 'sh' in 'sheep' but with the corners of the lips drawn back
    r somewhat like 'r' in 'rain'
  • Particular attention should be paid to the pronunciation of the so-called 'aspirated' consonants. It is necessary to breath heavily after the consonant is pronounced.
    p like 'p' in 'pope'
    t like 't' in 'tap'
    k like 'k' in 'kangaroo'
    q harder than 'ch' in 'cheap'
    c like 'ts' in 'cats'
    ch (tongue curled back, aspirated)
  • Distinction between certain initials:
    b / p   d / t   g / k   j / q   z / c   zh / ch

Finals

In modern Chinese, there are 38 finals besides the above-represented 21 initials.

i u ü
a ia ua
o uo üe
e ie
er
ai uai
ei uei (ui)
ao iao
ou iou (iu)
an ian uan üan
en in uen (un) üen
ang iang uang
eng ieng ueng
ong iong
  • ie like 'ye' in 'yes'
  • e like 'e' in 'her'
  • er like 'er' in 'sister' (american pronounciation)
  • ai like 'y' in 'by' (light)
  • ei like 'ay' in 'bay'
  • ou like 'o' in 'go'
  • an like 'an' in 'can' (without stressing the 'n')
  • -ng (final) a nasalized soung like the 'ng' in 'bang' without pronouncing the 'g'
  • uei, uen and iou when preceded by an initial, are written as ui, un and iu respectivly.

Tones

Mandarin Chinese has four pitched tones and a 'toneless' tone.

Tone Mark Description
1st High and level
2nd Starts medium in tone, then rises to the top
3rd Starts low, dips to the bottom, then rises toward the top
4th Starts at the top, then falls sharp and strong to the bottom
Neutral da Flat, with no emphasis


Tones Changes

A 3rd tone, when immediatlely followed by another 3rd tone, should pe pronounced in the 2nd tone.

Nǐ hǎo = Ní hǎo

Conversation

-
hǎo
!
- Zài
jiàn
!
(pro) You
hǎo (adj) good, well
你好! nǐhǎo! Hello, How are you?

zài (adv) again
jiàn (v) see
再见! zàijiàn! Goodbye!
http://www.chinese-tools.com/learn/chinese/01-phonetics-hello.html
Last edited on11-05-12 15:47

1Floor
Gina 11-05-12 15:40

Rules of phonetic spelling

1 zi ci si = z c s
2 zhi chi shi = zh ch sh
3 ju jue juan jun
qu que quan qun
xu xue xuan xun
=
=
=
jü jüe jüan jün
qü qüe qüan qün
xü xüe xüan xün
4 yu yue yuan yun = ü üe üan ün
5 ya ye yao you
yan yin ying yang
yong
=
=
=
ia ie iao iou
ian in ing iang
iong
6 wu wa wo wai
wei wan wen wang
weng
=
=
=
u ua uo uai
uei uan uen uang
ueng

Sound discrimination

1 bo po ba pa bi pi
2 de te da ta di ti
3 ge ke ge ka gu ku
4 ji qi jia qia jiu qiu
5 zi ci za ca ze ce
6 zhi chi zha cha zhe che
7 yin ying lin ling jin jing
8 yan yang gan gang kan kang
9 gen geng men meng fen feng

Tone drills

bā bá bǎ bà bū bú bǔ bù
kē ké kě kè qī qí qǐ qì
xiē xié xiě xiè mēi méi měi mèi
guān guán guǎn guàn xī xí xǐ xì
duī duí duǐ duì mīng míng mǐng mìng
tiān tián tiǎn tiàn yī yí yǐ yì
huī huí huǐ huì xiū xiú xiǔ xiù

Neutral tone

In Chinese there are a number of syllabes wich are unstressed and take a feeble tone. This is known as the neutral tone wich is shown by the absence of tone-graph.

māma 妈妈 : mum àiren 爱人 : husband, wife
bàba 爸爸 : dad háizi 孩子 : child, children
gēge 哥哥 : elder brother guānxi 关系 : relation
dìdi 弟弟 : younger brother xièxie 谢谢 : thank you
jiějie 姐姐 : elder sister kèqi 客气 : polite
mèimei 妹妹 : younger sister xiūxi 休息 : have a rest

Retroflex final

The final 儿 'er' is sometimes attached to another final to form a retroflex final and when thus used, it is no longer an independent syllable. A retroflex final is represented by the letter 'r' added to the final.

huì + er -> huìr yíhuìr 一会儿 : a moment
diǎn + er -> diǎnr yìdiǎnr 一点儿 : a little
nǎ + er -> nǎr naǎr 哪儿 : where
zhè + er -> zhèr zhèr 这儿 : there
http://www.chinese-tools.com/learn/chinese/02-phonetics-thank-you.html

2Floor
Gina 11-05-12 15:52
要是早一点找到这个帖,我的学生就有福了。

3Floor
student 11-05-15 06:33

Thanks for the list. As a Korean, I had trouble distinguishing 'ou' and 'uo'. Now I see that 'uo' is a spelling

of the phoneme 'wo'. I must have met this many times in introductions to Chinese . But your way of describing

made me aware of it for the first time.


4Floor
Gina 11-05-16 09:15
student Reply to: 11-05-15 06:33

Thanks for the list. As a Korean, I had trouble distinguishing 'ou' and 'uo'. Now I see that 'uo' is a spelling

of the phoneme 'wo'. I must have met this many times in introductions to Chinese . But your way of describing

made me aware of it for the first time.

Glad it is helpful to you! Sometimes the spelling does make learners confuse about the pronounciation. Just pay more attention to those special ones like 'iu','ui','ie',ect. (wei=uei qiu=qiou gui=guei etc.). You will make big progress in pronounciation.


5Floor
mmm 11-07-20 10:04
student Reply to: 11-05-15 06:33

Thanks for the list. As a Korean, I had trouble distinguishing 'ou' and 'uo'. Now I see that 'uo' is a spelling

of the phoneme 'wo'. I must have met this many times in introductions to Chinese . But your way of describing

made me aware of it for the first time.

You may also make use of the online pronounciation lab: http://www.myechinese.org/chinesey/