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巴西•在亚马逊河上穿梭时空 A Journey through Time and Space on the Amazon River——Scotty

wh  10-11-28 23:29

 

       一早下楼吃早餐,被告知今天是一个与黑人有关的节日,早点要推迟半个小时提供。这里大大小小的节日不少,每个都会放假,这就让巴西人更加慵懒。问他们放假都会干些什么,答曰:先睡到中午再说。早餐并不十分丰盛,但还算可口与新鲜——木瓜很香甜,菠萝虽是还未十分成熟的奶白色,也只有一点酸涩味;还有一种不知名的果汁,有点淡淡的芒果味,问过才知道原来是腰果汁。其实我们通常吃的腰果,只是腰果顶端的一小部分,在热带是能够吃到新鲜的腰果果子的。巴西还有一种木葡萄,长在树干上,大小和普通葡萄差不多,核较大,也算是当地特色的水果之一。

        从圣保罗到玛瑙斯的航程约四个个小时。飞跃两千多公里,相当于从北京到广州。今天天气晴好,没有太多的云,头顶蓝色的天空,可以直接望到脚下大片大片的森林,十分纯净和自然。

        踏出机场大门,一股久违的热浪扑面而来,仿佛又回到了盛夏季节。中午终于享用了闻名已久的“巴西烤肉”,竟和国内的相差无几——肉穿在长长的铁钎子上,一根接一根地上,丰俭由人,一直吃到两眼发直地望着令人垂涎三尺的烤肉,嘴中不得已地说出:“No”。大概由于这里是巴西,肉质似乎也跟着变得更加鲜美。特别要注意的是,巴西烤肉全都是牛肉,只是每次上的位置不同;因为语言不通,每次只好向服务员指指自己身上来确认盘中的肉是哪个部位。

        玛瑙斯是亚马逊州的首府,这个城市就像是一片原始森林,那些公路和建筑只是夹杂在丛林中的点缀。处处都是热带地区叫不出名字的树木,还有些粉色、红色的花,拖着长长的花蕊,开得正好。由于地理位置上属于热带,这里一年到头都是30℃以上的天气,可怜我还穿着秋天的衣服,走了几步就满头大汗。

        亚马逊本是希腊神话中一个女战士的部落,她们以自己特有的方式居住在一个遥远的国度中,亚马逊河以此命名也就有了特别的含义。而在一个从未到达过这片土地的人心目中,“亚马逊”又代表着河滩、沼泽、丛林、印第安部落、鳄鱼、蟒蛇以及无穷尽的冒险与。亚马逊河发源于秘鲁安第斯山脉高处,不过有三分之二都在巴西境内,它的一千多条支流分别来自南美洲北部的八个国家,巴西的亚马逊州就以这条河流命名。整个亚马逊原始森林的面积有七百多万平方公里,比三分之二的中国还要大。

        亚马逊流域的树木前几年曾被过度砍伐,好在现在巴西政府加强了砍伐控制力度。据说世界上40%的氧气都产自这里,如果亚马逊流域的环境遭到破坏,那么全世界的气候都会受到影响。据说现在已经有人花钱购买亚马逊的空气储备起来,想到这里我不禁又大口吸了几下这清新的空气,把饱受汽车尾气之苦的肺部好好清洗一下。

        码头停着不少大大小小的船只,深入亚马逊丛林进行探险要从这里搭船,也可以坐船花较少的钱到达其他城市,只是船上的床铺全部是“吊床”。虽然温度有30℃以上,还有很好的太阳,但由于一直在河面行使,所以不会感到闷热。河面很宽,大约有二三公里,在入海处竟达到了二百多公里宽,巴西人自豪地称之为“河海”。河里有大量的鱼类,当地政府很宽容,对打渔没有严格的限制,这也是为了满足少数居住在河边的印第安人的生活需求,他们平时的食物就是鱼和番薯。

        船行了一小时,远处看到黄黄的一大片水域。这就是著名的“两河交汇”:从不同源头来的河水汇聚到一起,由于两条河流水质的密度、温度、流速不同,流水只是汇聚却不融和,一黄一黑界限清晰,绵延十几公里,算是一大奇观。我们中国也有这样的景观,成语“泾渭分明”说的就是同样的场景;其中的河流是古代的泾河和渭河,在陕西省境内,现在是什么样子,并没有考证过。

In the morning, when I walked downstairs to have my breakfast, I was informed that today was a kind of African holiday. The breakfast would be postponed for half an hour. There were many big or small festivals here. No matter what holiday it was, people would have a day off, which made Brazilians even lazier. I asked them what they would do on their days off. Their answer was: "We will think about it after we wake up at noon." The breakfast was not very sumptuous, but quite fresh and delicious. Papaya was very sweet. Although pineapple was in a premature milky color, it only has a slight sour taste. There was an unknown juice with a flavor of mango. After asking, I got to know it was cashew juice. Actually the cashew what we normally eat is only the small top part of cashew. In the tropics, you can enjoy fresh cashew. In Brazil, there is a special type of tree grapes, which look like normal grapes but with bigger stones. It grows on trees. It can be counted as a local specialty.

The flight lasted four hours from São Paulo to Manaus. It was a journey of more than 2000 kilometers, which was more or less equal to the flight from Beijing to Guangzhou. It was a nice day today. The sky was blue with little clouds. You could see grand forests under you, which was extremely pure and natural.

After stepping out of the airport, I immediately felt a hot wave of air. I felt like going backing to the days of midsummer. At noon, we finally tried the famous Brazil barbecue, which was almost the same like we had in China—"meat on a long iron stick". The waiters served one customer after another. You could eat as much as you like. I was so stuffed that I could not eat anymore. I could only stare at the mouthwatering barbecue but had to say "No." Maybe because it was in Brazil, the meat tasted especially delicious. What we should notice was that all the Brazil barbeque was made of beef, but different parts of the ox. Due to the barrier of language, we could only point at ourselves to confirm which part of the ox the beef was with the waiter.

Manaus is the capital of the Amazonas. This city is like primitive forests. Roads and buildings are like ornaments in the forests. There are unknown tropical trees and pink and red blossoming flowers with long pistils. Due to the geographical location, it was almost always above 30℃. I still wore autumn clothes. Poor me! I could not help but sweat a lot after walking a little while.

Amazonas is originally a name for a tribe of women warriors in Greek mythology. They lived in a remote land in their own ways. Therefore, there is a special meaning for the Amazon River to be named after it. For a person who has never been to this piece of land, Amazon represents shoals, swamps, bushes, Indian tribes, crocodiles, boas and unlimited adventures. The Amazon River originates from the high mountains of Andes Mountains in Peru. Two thirds of the Amazon River is in Brazil. More than 1000 offshoots of the river are from 8 different countries in South America. The state of Amazonas is named after this river. The whole area of the Amazon forest is more than 7,000,000 square kilometers, which is bigger than two thirds of China.

The trees in the Amazon area once suffered from over cutting a few years ago. It is a blessing that the Brazil government intensified the administration of felling trees. It's said that over 40% of the oxygen in the world is produced here. If the environment of the Amazon region is destroyed, the climate worldwide would experience a change. It's said some people had spent money in storing the air in the Amazon region. Thinking of that, I could not help breathing deeply to enjoy the fresh air here, to wash my lung which suffered from automobile gas emission.

There are big and small ships in the wharf. If you are going to explore the bushes in the Amazon forests, you need to take a boat here. You can go to the other cities by ship under an economic budget. All the beds in the ships are hammocks. Although it was more than 30℃ and quite sunny, I did not feel hot and suffocated because we were taking the boat on the river. The river was extremely wide, about 2 to 3 kilometers wide. The width even reached more than 200 kilometers when the river was about to enter the ocean. Brazilians called it "the river ocean" proudly. There were plenty of fish in the river. The local government was really tolerant. It did not pose strict restrictions on fishing, which was to meet the need of a small number of Indians living by the riverside. Their staple food was composed of fish and sweet potatoes.

After sailing for one hour, we saw a big expanse of yellow water somewhere far away. It was the famous "gathering of the two rivers." Two rivers from different origins came together. Because of the differences in density, temperature and speed of the two rivers, they only met but did not blend together. One was yellow, and the other was black. This special scene lasted for more than 10 kilometers, which could be counted as a wonder. In China, we also have the similar natural wonder. There is a Chinese idiom "泾渭分明" (jing wei fen ming, as different as the waters of the River Jing and the River Wei), which describes a similar scene. The rivers in that idiom are River Jing and River Wei, which are located in Shaanxi Province. I did not check what it was like nowadays.

        中午在印第安人开的浮动餐厅用膳,旁边一辆快艇驶过,整个餐厅都会晃动几下。房屋下面有巨大的树干作为支架,究其原因一是它们可以在雨季随河水的涨幅而起落,二是这些树干极耐腐蚀,在水里泡几十年都不会腐烂。餐厅并不精致,但食物却很地道,一定要提的是在国内被奉为尊贵与财富象征的“金龙鱼”竟然是这里的家常便饭,味道虽一般,但除了这个地方恐怕不可能再有享用它们的机会了。

        吃过午餐,从餐厅借了几根鱼竿,就是简简单单的一条线加一个鱼钩,穿上一块新鲜的牛肉,就在旁边的浮台上钓起食人鱼来。食人鱼对血腥的东西非常敏感,鱼竿刚刚甩下去就有了反应,等到被猛烈地往下一拽时,猛地一抬杆,不肯松口的食人鱼被拉出水面,在空中翻了一个跟头又落了下去。钓钩大,鱼小,掉了几次,牛肉都被吃得干干净净,可是鱼一条都没有钓上来,钓鱼成了喂鱼。看来这食人鱼不仅牙齿厉害,还异常灵敏。旁边的人碰巧拉上来一条,我赶紧跑过去照了几张照片,还特别给那锋利的牙齿来了一张特写。据当地人讲,食人鱼通常成群活动,一头羊如果落入水中,大约五分钟的时间就剩下一堆白骨了。

At noon, we had our lunch in a floating restaurant run by Indians. When a big speedboat passed by, the whole restaurant was shaking. The building had giant branches as support. One of the reasons was that they could rise or fall according to the water in the monsoon. Second, these branches were extremely anticorrosion. It wouldn't get corroded after dozens of years in water. The restaurant was not posh, but the food there was really genuine. One thing worth pointing out was that the yellow croakers which symbolized nobility and wealth in China were just normal fish here. Although the taste was really nothing special, I was afraid that no place but here could people enjoy them as food.

After lunch, we borrowed a few fishing rods from the restaurant. A fishing rod here was made of a line and a fishhook. With a piece of fresh beef, we began to fish piranha. Piranhas were extremely sensitive to bloody stuff. After we threw the rods into the water, there was an immediate reaction in the water. When the fishing line was suddenly pulled into the water, I raised the rob quickly. The piranha did not want to loosen its bite. It turned a somersault and then fell into the water again. The fishhook was big and the fish was small. After a few times, the beef piece was completely gone. It seemed that piranha was not only had sharp teeth, but also extremely agile. A man nearby fished a piranha. I rushed to see and made a few photos. I made a feature of its sharp teeth. Local people told me that piranha often moved about together. If a sheep fell into the water, after a few minutes, there were skeletons left.

        钓鱼无功而返,我们换乘小型快艇,逆流继续往亚马逊丛林上游深处前行。行约十分钟,有若干条小船朝我们快速划来,每条小船上都有一个四五岁的小孩,手里拿着小猕猴、鹦鹉等动物。开船的人放慢了速度,一个印第安小女孩划到我的身边,让我拍照,导游讲,给一巴币(相当于人民币四元)的小费即可。快艇这时又启动,这群小孩子像听到命令一样,马上将小船划离快艇,没有一点乞讨者的纠缠。尽管他们以此为生,每天的时间就是在这小船上度过,希望偶尔经过的游客留下些维持生计的物资,可他们依旧保持天真和纯朴,在亚马逊这片自然的领域里,你能够从他们眼睛里面看到的只是最简单的渴望。

After the effortless fishing, we changed for a small speedboat and went upriver to the Amazon area. After 10 minutes, there were several boats racing towards us. On each boat, there was a four or five years old child holding a small macaque, parrot, or other animals. The man on the boats slowed down. An Indian girl rowed her boat towards me and asked me to take photos of her. The tourist guide told me that I only needed to give her one Brazil dollar which was equal to 4 RMB. Our speedboat started again. The kids seemed to hear an order. They all rowed their boats away, without any pestering. Although they lived on this and they spent every day on the boats and hoped the passing tourists could leave some money, they still kept their innocence and simplicity. In the natural area of Amazon, the things you could see in their eyes were the simplest desire.

        快艇又前行了约五分钟,在一片河滩靠了岸,岸上就是茂密的丛林,河滩不远处还有一个印第安人的家。所谓的家,就是河边一间浮在水面上的房子。大部分印第安人还是群居在丛林深处,从来不与外界来往,也“不知有汉”。这家人大致是1对父母,5个小孩;在河边支了个篷子,卖一些自己做的手工艺品,什么金龙鱼鱼鳞的面具,鳄鱼牙齿做的手链,羽毛装点的头饰,木条编制的弓箭……小孩子手里有的抱着鳄鱼,有的背着蟒蛇,有的捧着树懒。太恐怖和庞大的动物我总觉得不那么友好,就只选树懒留了合影。这家伙动作极为缓慢,听说一天有20个小时都在睡觉,而且还聋,在它耳边打一枪都不会醒过来,也只有在原始丛林中才有亲手抱到它的机会。

        踏着被踩出来的小路向原始森林深处前行,旁边不时可以见到在树丛中跳跃的长尾猕猴,迎光闪耀的蜘蛛网,和树干上巨大的蚂蚁窝。树藤与树干相互缠绕,树根则牢牢地扎到土里,头顶的树叶将阳光完全阻隔,煞是凉快,脚下是厚厚的沉积了一年又一年的落叶,走上去像踩着软软的地毯,这里的空气与氧气瓶的相差无几,再加上满眼的绿色,让人神清气爽。不知不觉行进中见到一棵参天的大树横在路中央,树干有几人合抱那么粗,便再也找不到前行的道路了。据当地人讲,若再往深处探险,则毒蛇、毒虫遍布,随处可见足能致命的蝎子和蜘蛛,甚至连树木都为了保护自身而带有毒性,而且没有任何参照物可用来识别方向,一般人是无法进入的。

        当快艇离河滩渐行渐远,一种无法抑制的感慨又涌上心头:这片富饶的土地,保持着几个世纪以来的原始状态,这里还有着无穷无尽未被科学家发现和记载的动物和植物,太多的幻想,让我们相信这里是人类的最后一片净土,太多的传奇色彩,让我们以为这里永远不可能被了解。

After five minutes, we landed on a shoal. There were thick forests on the shoal. Not far from the shoal was an Indian’s home. The so-called home was a house floating on the river. Most Indians still lived in tribes in the deep forests and did not contact with the world outside. They did not know what the outside world was like. As to this family, there were the parents and five kids. They set a tent in the riverside to sell handcrafts made by themselves, such as facial masks made of yellow croakers' scale, bracelets made of crocodile teeth, head accessories with feather, wooden arrows, and etc. The kids were either holding a crocodile in their arms, or had a boa on their backs or holding a sloth in their hands. Animals which were too big or too scary made me feel uncomfortable. So I chose to take a photo with a sloth. The sloth moved really slowly. It was said that it slept more than 20 hours per day. Besides, it was deaf. Even the sound of the gunshot would not wake it up. Only in a primitive forest, you might have a chance of holding it in your own hands.

We walked forward to the depth of the primitive forest on the treaded road. We could see long-tailed macaques jumping in the bushes, shining spider nets and giant ant nests in the branches. Vines and branches tangled together with their roots deep in the earth. The leaves above our head completely blocked the sun lights and gave a nice cool shade. Under our feet, layers of leaves falling from the trees year after year felt like a soft carpet. The air here was like the air in an oxygen bottle. With the green color all over, you would feel so refreshed. We soon came across a giant tree in the middle of the road. It was so thick and tall that it took several people hand in hand to encircle it. We could no longer find any road ahead. The local people told us that if we would walk any further, there would be a lot of poisonous snakes and worms, fatal scorpions and spiders. Even some trees were poisonous for self-protection. Besides, there would be no reference objects to help us identify the directions. A normal person would not be able to survive there.

When our speedboat left the place, I could not help thinking: This rich place still kept the primitive state for several centuries. There were endless undiscovered and unrecorded animals and plants waiting to be explored by scientists. Too many fantasies led me to believe that it was the last pure land for mankind. Too many legends let us believe that we would never understand it.

    本文转载自Scotty的个人空间,要阅读更多作者文章,请移步作者个人空间 http://i.myechinese.com/index.php?s=/space/1251 

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Edit on10-11-30 13:55