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印度的宗教 Indian Religion——冯瑞

cindy  11-06-24 16:20

Language:中文 pin yin English

      我在来印之前看的一些和印度有关的介绍,出现印度人的时候主流装扮都是头缠头巾(即印度总理辛格的装扮)。可能有不少人认为大多数的印度人都是那种打扮——起码我之前是这样想的,其实并非如此。

Before coming to India, I had read a bit about it, and every time a picture of an Indian came up, they were generally shown with their heads wrapped in turbans, like India's Prime Minister Singh.  Perhaps many people also believe that most Indians dress this way—at least I used to, but in fact this is not the case.

       由于印度宗教众多,比如印度教,佛教,伊斯兰等等,不同宗教的教徒的装扮会有些区别,头巾这种特色装备只属于锡克教的教众,印度教信仰者并不需要带头巾。可能是因为头上缠满头巾十分有特色,所以大家对此印象深刻。

As there are many religions in India, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam, adherents of each religion wear accordingly different dress. Turbans are only an item worn by followers of Sikhism, and are not required to be worn by believers of Hinduism. Perhaps it is because the sight of a head wrapped in a turban is so characteristic that it leaves everyone with such a deep impression.

       作为印度的第一大宗教印度教,比较重要的一个教义就是对牛的崇拜,当然也提倡不杀生,吃素食,但仅是提倡并不强求,所以有很大一部分印度人是吃素的,而且 在他们餐厅的菜单上(包括KFC,麦当劳这些国际快餐店)都会明确标出食品是荤是素,一般荤的会有一个红色的圆形标记,素食为绿色标记。或者直接写明 “Non-Veg”“Veg”。

One of the main doctrines of Hinduism, the main religion of India, is its reverence of the bull, as well as its advocacy against killing and espousal of vegetarianism.  However, these principles are merely encouraged, not strictly required.  Many Indians are vegetarian, and restaurants’ menus (including international fast food chains such as KFC and McDonalds) clearly indicate which foods contain meat and which are vegetarian, meat dishes generally noted by a circular red mark, and vegetarian dishes indicated in green, or by simply writing "Non-Veg" or "Veg."

       印度教的神明非常之多,没有一个类似于耶稣或默罕默德这样的头牌人物。有诸如光明之神,音乐之神,财神等等,其中光明之神ganesh是最重要的一个,其形象为象头人身,也经常会坐于莲花宝座之上。每年的10月份(具体时间不固定,根据印度自己的历法计算,如同中国的阴历)会有以此神为主题的节日,也是家家点灯,放鞭炮,并且农村会把ganesh的神像投入河里以求好的收成。这个节日叫做Diwali,是印度最大的节日,类似于中国的新年了。其他的稍小点的神仙各不相同,感觉和西游记里佛教的各路神仙造型比较接近,其中财神是猴头人身的形象,据说孙悟空的形象就来源于此,音乐之神则类似于中国古代壁画里的飞天,很有美感,还有有三头六臂的,有骑着大象的,不一而足。感觉不管在教义上还是诸神的设计上,佛教和印度教都有千丝万缕的联系。

Hindu gods are numerous, with no head figure such as Jesus or Mohammed. Among them are such gods as the gods of light, of music, and of fortune.  The god of light, Ganesh, one of the most important gods, bears the figure of a human with the head of an elephant, and is often found seated on lotus throne.  A holiday is observed for this deity every year in October (though the date is not fixed, set according to an Indian calendar, similar to the Chinese lunar calendar) during which all houses turn on lights and set off firecrackers, while villages will throw likenesses of Ganesh into the river to pray for good harvests. This festival, called Diwali, is the biggest festival in India, similar to the Chinese New Year. Other slightly more minor deities are all different, seemingly similar in likeness to the various Buddhist beings found in Journey to the West.  Of these, the god of fortune bears the body of a man and the head of a monkey.  It is said that the image of Sun Wukong, the Monkey King, was derived from this god, while the god of music is similar to ancient Chinese fresco depictions of Flying Apsaras, quite pleasing to the eyes, as well as other countless gods, some riding elephants, others with three heads and six arms.  It seems that both in terms of religious doctrine as well as physical appearance of deities, Buddhism and Hinduism share countless ties.

       前面提到的锡克教也是印度很重要的一个宗教,有人说其是印度教的一个分支(他们也不吃牛肉),但又有独自的一些教义,比如男性极具特色的头巾。而且锡克男人是不能理发的,头发一直留着然后用头巾包起来——好像锡克教又有分支,有部分锡克人是胡子也不能剃的——所以与头巾相伴的一般都是浓密的大胡子。锡克人是印度人里的精英人群,他们的教义里非常重要的一条就是终生不能乞讨,这也激励了他们更努力的工作(印度大街上有不少乞丐,但是绝无带头巾的行乞者)。

As mentioned, Sikhism is also another major religion in India, and is said by some to be a branch of Hinduism (they also do not eat beef), however it also has its own independent doctrines, such as the characteristic turbans worn by men.  Furthermore, Sikh men are prohibited from cutting their hair, letting it grow long and then wrapping it in a turban.  Sikhism seems to have branches of its own, with some adherents neither cutting hair nor beards, so a turban is generally found accompanied by a great thick beard.  Sikhs are an elite group among Indians, as one essential tenet of their religion is never to beg, a tenet which compels them to work even harder (and while there are many beggars on the streets of India, never will they be found wearing a turban).

       再有就是伊斯兰教了,中国的穆斯林在装束上并没有特别之处,但在宗教国家里,他们的打扮还是有不小的区别,女性的服装比较明显,即黑色长袍,并且用黑纱遮脸,最虔诚的打扮应该是用黑纱把整个脸都蒙住,连眼睛都要遮住的,当然也有露出双眼或者只是把头顶盖住脸全露的。印度的穆斯林并不太多,但是印度教和穆斯林教的冲突比较严重,经常有基于宗教的斗争。

Then there is Islam. While Chinese Muslims do not have a particular mode of dress, in a religious country such as India, their clothing bears many significant differences, most notable of which is that of women, who wear long black gowns, and cover their faces with a black veil.  The most pious observers are supposed to completely cover their face, even the eyes, but of course some women unveil their eyes or simply cover their heads while leaving their faces exposed.  While there are in fact not a great number of Muslims in India, there exists rather severe religious conflict between Hindus and Muslims, with religious struggles breaking out frequently.

       印度宗教众多,挑几个比较有代表性的说了一下,中国人大多不信仰宗教,所以在国外的人看来难以理解,所以不断有人问我到底信仰什么,我一般都会回答:辛勤工作,挣钱养家。他们也会还我一笑说:那我们是一个religion。

There are many religions in India; this is just a description of a few of the most representative ones.  Most Chinese are not religious, which can be difficult to understand in the eyes of those outside of China, so when people constantly ask me what I believe in, I generally reply, "Working hard, and making money for my family." They will often smile and say, "Then we share the same religion."

 

本文转载自冯瑞的个人空间,要阅读更多作者文章,请移步作者个人空间 http://i.myechinese.com/index.php?s=/space/3698  。To read more, please visit 张叶's space at http://i.myechinese.com/index.php?s=/space/3698


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Edit on11-06-24 18:04