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门神与春联 Door Gods and Spring Festival Couplets

wh  10-09-03 14:57


 
  
         在我国,每到农历大年三十,也就是春节除夕这一天,家家户户都会忙着贴门神与春联。
         春联源于古代的桃符。古人习惯过年时在大门两旁各挂一块长六寸,宽三寸的桃木板,上面写上“神荼”、“郁垒”二神名,此二神是传说中住在度朔山上的俩兄弟,他们每天检阅百鬼,如发现恶鬼危害人间,便将其绑了喂老虎。人们将写有他们兄弟名字的桃符挂在门边,据说可以驱鬼避邪。渐渐的,人们也开始在桃符上提写吉庆的文字。
         公元964年,后蜀主孟昶叫学士辛寅逊在桃板上题词,因为嫌他写得不满意,便自己动手写了“新年纳余庆,佳节号长春”。从此,桃符上的内容便变为相互对仗的诗文与韵文。到了明代,人们更是用纸张代替了桃符,并改称“春联”。
         与贴春联的目的一样,贴门神也是为了祈求全家的福寿康宁。在民间,门神是正气和武力的象征,他们心地正直善良,具有神奇的禀性和不凡的本领,捉鬼擒魔是他们的天性和责任。最初,人们张贴的门神是神茶、郁垒。到了唐代,门神的位置便被当时名将秦叔宝和尉迟敬德的画像所取代,手执铁锏的是秦叔宝,手执钢鞭的是尉迟敬德。
         以前我国大部分民居的大门都是两扇对开,所以门神也总是成双成对。如今因城市中住户的门总是一扇,挂门神的人家也变少了,但在一些城市的老城区和乡村仍保持着这样的习惯。
 
In China, on the last day of the lunar year, the eve of Spring Festival, or the Chinese New Year, every household is busy putting door gods or spring festival couplets on their doors.
Chunlian, or spring festival couplets, originated from taofu, or peach wood charms, of yore.  In ancient times, during the New Year, Chinese would hang peach wood boards on each side of their doorways, six inches long and three inches across, on which were written the names of the gods Shentu and Yulei.  These two gods were said in legend to live on Dushuo Mountain, from where they would inspect hundreds of demons every day, and, if they found any demons to be disturbing the lands of mortals, would tie them up and feed them to the tigers.  It was said that by hanging one's door with peach wood charms inscribed with the names of these gods, one could drive off demons and banish evil.  Eventually, people began to write auspicious phrases in the place of the gods' names.
In 964 A.D., the Emperor of Later Shu, Meng Chang, asked the scholar Xin Yinxun to write a few words for a peach wood charm, but, unsatisfied with the scholar's writing, the Emperor himself wrote the words, "xīnnián nà yú qìng,jiājié hào chángchūn". From then on, peach wood charms were inscribed with poetic and rhyming phrases.  By the Ming Dynasty, the wooden boards were abandoned in favor of paper sheets, and called chunlian, or spring festival couplets.
As with the couplets, "door gods" are also hung on doors to pray for the peace and happiness of the family.  According to folk custom, door gods are symbols of righteousness and might. With hearts of integrity and kindness, mystical in nature and possessing extraordinary capabilities, these gods are duty bound to capture and protect from evil spirits.  Shentu and Yulei were the earliest two door gods.  By the Tang Dynasty, these gods had been replaced by the likenesses of two famous generals, Qin Shubao and Yuchi Jingde, the former wielding an iron club, the latter bearing a chain whip. 
In the past, most Chinese homes were made with double doors, so the two door gods were affixed opposite one another in pairs.  But as most doors in city residences have been replaced with single doors, door gods are seen less and less, but this custom can still be found in older areas of cities and in villages.


 

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Edit on10-09-21 14:39