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新疆 Xinjiang

wh  10-10-18 15:32
 

        新疆维吾尔自治区,简称新,位于中国的西北部,它的东面和南面,与甘肃、青海、西藏相邻。全区面积为一百六十万平方公里,占全国面积的六分之一,是中国面积最大的省区,她相当于45个台湾省,或相当于陕西、甘肃、宁夏、青海4省区面积的总和。新疆地处亚欧大陆腹地,除东南部连接甘肃、青海、南部连接西藏,东北部与蒙古人民共和国毗邻,西北部同俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦接壤,西南部与阿富汗、巴基斯坦、印度接界,在历史上是沟通东西方、闻名于世的“丝绸之路”的要冲,现在又成为第二座“亚欧大陆桥”的必经之地,战略位置十分重要。新疆边境线长达5400多公里,占全国陆地边境总长度的四分之一,她是我国边境线最长的省区。新疆是多宗教地区,现有47个民族,是中国五个少数民族自治区之一。

        新疆地域辽阔,地形多样。山脉与盆地相间排列,盆地被高山环抱,俗喻“三山夹两盆”。南有喀喇昆仑山,北有阿尔泰山,天山横亘中部,把新疆分为南北两部分,北部是准噶尔盆地(面积38万平方公里),南部是塔里木盆地(面积53万平方公里)。习惯上称天山以南为南疆,天山以北为北疆。哈密、吐鲁番盆地一带称东疆。塔里木盆地是中国最大的盆地,塔克拉玛干沙漠位于盆地中部,面积32.4万平方公里,是中国最大、世界第二大流动沙漠。新疆冰川资源丰富,有大小冰川约1.86万条。有大小河流570多条。除额尔齐斯河流入北冰洋外,大部分河流均是内陆河。塔里木河全长2179公里,是中国最长的内陆河。新疆湖泊众多,水域面积5504.5平方公里,其中博斯腾湖水域面积980平方公里,是中国最大的内陆淡水湖。新疆东部的吐鲁番盆地,最低点-154米,是中国海拔最低的地方。新疆远离海洋,四周高山环抱,是典型的温带大陆性干旱气候特征,表现为降水稀少,蒸发强烈,相对湿度低,夏季干热,冬季干冷,风大沙多,冬季漫长,春秋短,日照长,温差大。

        新疆旅游资源丰富而独特, 它是举世闻名的歌舞之乡、瓜果之乡、黄金玉石之邦。新疆幅员辽阔,地大物博,山川壮丽,瀚海无垠,古迹遍地,民族众多,民俗奇异。全疆共有景点一千一百余处,居全国首位,其中10处被列为全国重点文物保护单位。在这广阔大地上,冰川雪岭与戈壁瀚海共生,高原山水景观蕴含在天山、阿尔泰山、昆仑山等世界名山之中,有着众多的雪域冰川、叠嶂雄峰、飞泉瀑布、珍奇异兽。这里有海拔8600米的世界第二高峰,又有低于海平面154米的中国最低洼地,既有一泄千里的河流、万顷碧波的草原,又有光怪陆离的戈壁幻境,神秘莫测的沙漠奇观。著名的自然风景有天池、喀纳斯湖、博斯腾湖、赛里木湖、巴音布鲁克草原等。新疆人文旅游资源丰富,在新疆5000多公里古丝绸之路的南、北、中三条干线上留下数以百计的古城池、古墓葬、千佛洞、古屯田遗址等人文景观,其中,交河故城、高昌故城、楼兰遗址、克孜尔千佛洞、香妃墓等蜚声中外。新疆还有 22 个自然保护区。新疆自古以来就是一个多民族聚居的地区,各民族的文化艺术和风情习俗绚丽多彩,构成了具有浓郁民族特色的旅游人文景观。

The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, also called Xin for short, is located in northwestern China.  It is a large, sparsely populated area (spanning over 1.6 million sq. km) which takes up about one sixth of the country's territory. It is located in the hinterland of Asia-European Continent and with the total boarder of about 5,600 odd kilometers. Xinjiang borders the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south and Qinghai and Gansu provinces to the southeast, Mongolia to the east, Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan-administered Kashmir to the west. It used to be an important intersection of the famous "Silk Road", and now has developed to be a critical component of the second "Asian-European Content Bridge" with strategic importance.

The terrain of Xinjiang can be summarized as "Three Mountains Embosoming Two Basins". On the northern border of Xinjiang stand the Altay Mountains, on the southern border is the Kunlun Mountain Range, and in the middle part of the region stretch the enormous Tianshan Mountains. The Junggar Basin lies between Altay Mountains and Tianshan Mountains covering about 200,000 square kilometers. Covering an area of approximately 530,000 square kilometers, the Tarim Basin sits between Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains; in the central part of the basin is China largest moving desert-Takla Makan Desert, which boasts a area of 330,000 square kilometers and is the second, largest moving desert in the world. With a total length of about 2100 kilometers, Tarim River is the longest inland river in China. Xinjiang enjoys a typical continental climate of temperate zone with an annual precipitation of over 100 millimeters. Winters are very cold and summers extremely hot.
Xinjiang boasts of rich and colorful tourist resources characterized by unique natural landscapes, varied climate and long history. The co-existence of the cool Heavenly Lake and hot Turpan, as well as the expansive desert and wide oasis constitute the rough and natural landscape in Xinjiang. There are more than 1000 wild species, many of which are rare plants and animals. To date 23 nature reserves have been established and four of them are nationally designated ones. The Xinjiang owes its popularity to the many tourist attractions like the Heavenly Lake, the Hanas Lake, Bosteng Lake, Sailimu Lake and Bayinbluke Prairie, A number of historical and cultural relics in Xinjiang are also well known. For instance, the Jiaohe ruins, Gaochang ruins, Loulan Site and Kizil Thousand Buddha Grottoes, and so on. Xinjiang is also reputed as the "Home of Singing and Dancing" for its unique folk culture and custom.

 

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10-10-18 23:39
决定了 我要去新疆玩儿