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一个人的黔行手记之四:岜沙的汉子(中)Travel Alone in Guizhou: Men of Basha (part two)

estella  11-08-02 09:32

Language:中文 pin yin English

       从江县城打车到岜沙,只不过半个小时车程。习惯了辗转奔波,寻觅藏于深山或水畔的村寨,于是这样的便捷让人心生疑惑。
It took only half an hour by taxi from Congjiang county to Basha. I got used to the trouble of passing through many places for searching unique old villages hidden in mountains or by rivers, so this time I felt suspicious because of the convenience.

下午的寨子异常安静。安顿完行李后,我居然有些无所事事。明晃晃的太阳照在空空的街道上,两三个孩子在旅馆门口玩耍。现在显然不是拍照的好时间,何况我对这支部落还一无所知,茫然不知如何入手。

The village was clothed in an unusual stillness in the afternoon. I even felt a little bored after settling down. The bright sun lit up the empty streets; only two or three kids were playing in front of the hotel. It was obviously not a good time to take photos, let alone I knew nothing about this place. I was a little bewildered about what to do at that time.
       街上有两个女孩穿着非常漂亮的民族服饰。一问才知道,她们日常就是这么穿的,并不像很多地方只有重大节日或是游客来才穿民族服装。其中一个女孩子皮肤白皙,笑容妩媚,长得很有几分舒琪的味道。
There were two girls dressed up in beautiful ethnic costumes in the street. It was said that they dressed like this every day, unlike peoples who would wear their costumes only on important occasions or for attracting tourists. One of the girls had fair skin and charming smile, who looked somewhat similar to the movie star Shu Qi.

太阳快下山时,我终于决定拎着相机出去晃晃。寨子并不大,但树木葱茏,非常茂密。百年以上树龄的古木比比皆是,各种植物也生长得非常茂盛。看得出来,寨子里的人对植被有着强烈的保护意识,后来查阅资料更证明了我的这一判断。

Not until the sun set when I decided to walk around with my camera. The village was not a big one but was covered with verdant and thick trees. Trees of more than one hundred years old could be seen everywhere; different kinds of plants grew rampantly here and there. It seemed the villagers here were very concerned about environmental protection, and this conclusion was further confirmed after I consulted some reference materials.

岜沙人自古以来崇拜树,最盛大的祭祀仪式就是拜树神。每一个岜沙人出生后,父母都会为他种一棵树,寓意他生命的开始。这棵树陪伴着这个孩子成长、苍老,直至死亡。待到他的人生走到尽头,寨子中的人会把伴随死者成长的这棵树砍下来做成棺材,将死者放进树棺入土,之后再在埋葬他的地方种一棵树,表示他的生命以另一种形式得到了再生和延续。在他们的观念中,人是大自然的子孙,人的一切都是树给的:远古的先民为避野兽栖于树上,后来以树为材建房筑巢,树给人提供取暖用的柴、做工具的料、以及饱腹的果实。最老的树就是最古老的祖宗,老树就像祖宗一样的时刻保佑着他们。

People of Basha have always worshipped trees since ancient times. The most important sacrificial ceremony here is to worship the God of Tree. When a child is born, his/her parents would plant a tree for him/her which symbolizes the beginning of a new life. The tree would accompany the child all through his/her life. When this person died, people would cut down the tree and make a coffin with it. They put the dead in the coffin and buried him/her, and then plant another tree beside the grave, symbolizing the person’s life been continued in another form. In their philosophy, human beings are descendants of the nature, and get everything they need from trees. In ancient times, man hid on trees in order to escape from wild animals. Later, people used trees to build shelters, get warmed, make tools, and get fed with fruits harvested from trees. The oldest trees are regarded as their ancient ancestors, guarding them all the time.
       再往深处探究时,发现岜沙人的树神崇拜其实根植于祖先崇拜。黔东南苗族史诗《枫木歌》中说,苗族始祖姜央(炎)是从枫树树心中生出来的。《山海经·大荒南经》中也曾记载:有宋山者,有木生山上,名曰枫木。枫木,蚩尤所弃其桎梏,是谓枫木。
Studied closer, I found the worship of trees in Basha was actually the worship of their ancestors. It is recorded in the epic of the Miao, Song of the Maple that the forefather Jiang Yan was born from a maple tree. It is also recorded in Shanhai Jing that there was a Mount Song once upon a time where a tree named Maple grew for it was the shackles thrown by Chiyou.
       岜沙人认为,他们的祖先是从树心中生出来的,所以死后也要回到树中,这便是岜沙人千百年来实施树葬的根源。记得之前看过一组照片,纪录的便是一位枪手最后的葬礼,这种古老的树葬,神秘而苍凉,仿佛与远古祖先的灵魂对话。
People of Basha believe that their ancestor was born from trees and thus he should go back to trees after death. That’s why Basha people have kept the tradition of “tree burial”. I once saw a group of photos about the burial of a gunman. This ancient tree burial looked so mysterious and full of sadness, like a conversation between the dead person and the ancient ancestor.
       我想起藏族的天葬、水族的水葬、蒙古族的马葬和野葬,这些古老的传统无不体现着古人天人合一的理念,以及对大自然由衷的崇拜和灵魂生生不息的信仰。也许正是因为这种崇拜和信仰,才使得他们不惧怕面对今世的苦难,可以宽容而平等地面对生命与自然界的万物生灵。
It reminded me of the celestial burial of the Tibetan people, the water burial of the Shui people, the horse burial and burying people in the wild of the Mongolians, which all reflect the old theory that man is an integral part of nature held by the ancient Chinese people, and also demonstrate their sincere worship of nature and the belief in the continuity of the soul. Perhaps it was because of such worship and belief that they got the strength to face the difficulties in this life and treat every creature with the same tolerance and equality.

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Edit on11-08-25 11:01